The quantum world is both elegant and mysterious. It is a sphere of existence where the laws of physics experienced in everyday life are broken -- particles can exist in two places at once, they can react to each other over vast distances, and they themselves seem confused over whether they are particles or waves. For those not involved in the field, this world may seem trifling, but recently, researchers have theoretically described two quantum states that are extraordinary in both the physics that define them and their visual appeal: a complex quantum system that simulates classical physics and a spellbinding necklace-like state.
Combinations of three antibiotics -- that are each ineffective against superbugs when used alone -- are capable of eradicating two of the six ESKAPE pathogens when delivered together, scientists have discovered.
Synthetic biology researchers have demonstrated a new method for digital information processing in living cells, analogous to the logic gates used in electric circuits. The circuits are the largest ever published to date in eurkaryotic cells and a key step in harnessing the potential of cells as living computers that can respond to disease, efficiently produce biofuels or develop plant-based chemicals.
Subjecting complex metal mixtures called high-entropy alloys to extremely high pressures could lead to finer control over the arrangement of their atoms, which in turn can result in more desirable properties.
Globally, every 30 seconds a diabetic has a limb amputated because of a non-healing wound. A molecule produced by a Thai liver parasite could be the solution to those non-healing wounds -- and scientists are now able to produce a version of the molecule on a large enough scale to make it available for laboratory tests and eventually clinical trials.
The snowy-feathered head and distinctive brown body of the bald eagle is a proud national symbol of the United States, adorning the country's currency and passports. The lion, known as 'King of the Beasts,' represents national strength and identity in several African countries. But, how are populations of the planet's most valued wildlife faring in the 21st century? How well are societies protecting the species they have chosen to embody their ideals and represent their national identity?
Researchers have developed a new device to map the brain during surgery and distinguish between healthy and diseased tissues. The device provides higher resolution neural readings than existing tools used in the clinic and could enable doctors to perform safer, more precise brain surgeries.
Blood thinners, such as aspirin, reduce the risk of thrombus formation but also interfere with the initial clot formation that is essential for preventing blood loss from the wounds. Now researchers have discovered that a molecule plays a role in thrombus development, but not the initial clot formation, suggesting a new avenue for developing more specific and protective blood thinners.
Scientists studying the genetics of Zika virus in Brazil and beyond has provided a new understanding of the disease and its rapid spread through space and time. The research has significant public health implications and has the potential to improve responses to future outbreaks.
Though it has gained popularity in the West as medically and psychologically beneficial, meditation can produce a much wider variety of outcomes, not all of them calm and relaxing, according to a new study that analyzes meditation-related challenges.
A novel mechanism behind the resistance of breast cancer brain metastases to HER2- or PI3K-targeted therapies has been discovered, and a treatment strategy has now been identified that may overcome this resistance.
A-tisket, a-tasket. You can tell a lot from a basket. Especially if it's from ancient ruins of a civilization inhabited by humans 15,000 years ago. An archeologist is among the team who made a groundbreaking discovery in coastal Peru -- home to one of the earliest pyramids in South America. Thousands of artifacts, including elaborate hand-woven baskets, show that early humans in that region were a lot more advanced than originally thought and had very complex social networks.
Reading is such a modern cultural invention that there is no specific area in the brain dedicated to it. Scientists have found that learning to read as an adult reconfigures evolutionarily ancient brain structures hitherto assigned to different skills. These findings were obtained in a large-scale study in India in which completely illiterate women learned how to read and write for six months.
Follicular T helper (TFH) cells orchestrate the germinal center (GC) reaction locally. Local mechanisms regulating their dynamics and helper functions are not well defined. Here we found that GC-expressed ephrin B1 (EFNB1) repulsively inhibited T cell to B cell adhesion and GC TFH retention by signaling through TFH-expressed EPHB6 receptor. At the same time, EFNB1 promoted interleukin-21 production from GC TFH cells by signaling predominantly through EPHB4. Consequently, EFNB1-null GCs were associated with defective production of plasma cells despite harboring excessive TFH cells. In a competitive GC reaction, EFNB1-deficient B cells more efficiently interacted with TFH cells and produced more bone-marrow plasma cells, likely as a result of gaining more contact-dependent help. Our results reveal a contact-dependent repulsive guidance system that controls GC TFH dynamics and effector functions locally.